Did the Romans Drink Beer?

In Vino Veritas: The Story of Wine and Beer in Ancient Rome

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It’s said that the Roman Empire, with its grandeur and mysteries, regularly captivates many men’s minds. Well, I am curious about whether Romans drank beer. Although the lavish Roman feasts are usually associated with wine, beer was occasionally part of their culture. In this article, we will explore the various drinks of ancient Rome, ranging from the common soldier’s barley brew to the refined wine of the aristocrats. We will also investigate whether the famous gladiators enjoyed a brew after a well-fought fight. Join us as we uncover the drinking habits of one of history’s most intriguing civilisations, shedding light on a less-known aspect of Roman life.

Exploring Ancient Beverages: Did the Romans Really Drink Beer?

So, did the Romans drink beer? The Romans drank beer, though it was less popular than wine. Considered a drink for ‘barbarians,’ Roman beer was simple, using ingredients like water and yeast. Although it was overshadowed by wine, Tacitus, a notable historian of the era, documented that Germans, under Roma’s influence, consumed beer made from these ingredients.

However, the Roman approach to beer was nuanced. Reflecting on the Roman culinary culture, beer’s place differed notably from the esteemed wine. It lacked the cultural prestige associated with wine. The Romans’ beer recipes were simple, indicating that beer brewing was not a highly developed art in Rome compared to other ancient civilisations. This perception of beer as a beverage for ‘barbarians’ reveals much about Roman societal values and their views on different cultures.

Additionally, the sensory qualities of Roman beer were unique. Emperor Julian noted that their beer had a goat-like smell, suggesting the presence of Brettanomyces yeasts, known for producing distinctive off-flavours. This, combined with its likely sour taste, as was common in ancient brews, shows why Roman beer was less enjoyed than the more refined and celebrated wines.

It’s undeniable that wine held a supreme position in Roman society. It was the centrepiece of social gatherings, banquets, and even religious ceremonies. Wine’s deep integration into Roman life overshadowed other beverages like beer and cider, which, while known and consumed, were considered secondary.

So, while beer did exist in Roman times, it occupied a peripheral space in their drinking culture, often overshadowed by the more prestigious and culturally significant wine. This exploration into Roman beer consumption paints a picture of a society with varied tastes but clear preferences, offering a fascinating glimpse into the lesser-known aspects of their culinary history. Let’s do a little more digging into what they did drink. 

What did Romans Drink?
What did Romans Drink?

A Taste of History: Uncovering What the Romans Drank

Let’s answer the question: “What did Romans Drink?” Romans’ primary drink was diluted wine, often flavoured with spices or honey. They also consumed posca, a vinegar-water mixture, particularly among soldiers and lower classes. 

As mentioned, wine was indisputably the cornerstone of Roman beverages, reflecting not just a preference but a profound cultural and social significance. Wine’s prominence in Roman society extended far beyond mere consumption. It was a symbol of civilisation, wealth, and social status. Its universal presence across all strata of society—from the opulent tables of aristocrats to the modest meals of commoners and even part of the rations for children and enslaved people—illustrates its integral role in daily life. 

In addition, the Romans’ practice of diluting wine with water and enhancing its flavour with spices or honey was a culinary preference and a testament to their pursuit of refinement and sophistication in gastronomy. This widespread consumption and reverence for wine highlight its deep entwinement with Roman identity, customs, and social fabric.

Beyond wine, the Romans also consumed posca – a pragmatic concoction of water, vinegar, and sometimes wine (again). Less palatable and nutritious compared to wine, posca was a staple for soldiers, the lower classes, and enslaved people. This drink’s simplicity and refreshing nature made it ideal for those enduring the hardships of military campaigns or laborious tasks.

While these were the standard drinks, let’s focus on Roman culture’s less prevalent yet present beverages. As mentioned, while beer was present during this era, it was snubbed mainly by the Romans, who considered it barbaric. This sentiment illustrates the cultural and social prejudices of the time, with beer overshadowing the more esteemed wine. Despite this, evidence suggests that a range of alcoholic beverages, including mead and beer, as well as non-alcoholic options like water and fruit juices, were available and likely consumed during gatherings and celebrations.

Roman drinking habits were multifaceted, with wine being the celebrated beverage of choice. However, their repertoire included other drinks like the utilitarian posca and various alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, reflecting the diversity of tastes and social classes within ancient Roman society. But did Gladiators drink alcohol before or after the big fight? Let’s find out!

Behind the Arena: Investigating Alcohol Consumption Among Roman Gladiators

Did Gladiators Drink Alcohol?
Did Gladiators Drink Alcohol?

Did Gladiators Drink Alcohol? Gladiators in ancient Rome primarily drank a restorative beverage made from ash, vinegar, and water, rich in calcium for bone health. While wine was prevalent in Roman culture, gladiators’ diets focused more on physical fitness, suggesting limited alcohol consumption.

The lifestyle of a gladiator required a different dietary approach. The primary beverage for gladiators, especially post-combat, was not alcohol but a nutrient-rich drink made from ash, vinegar, and water. This concoction, described as the Roman-era equivalent of a sports drink, was designed to aid recovery and replenish essential minerals like calcium.

Research on the skeletal remains of gladiators unearthed in Ephesus, Turkey, supports this dietary choice. The findings indicate that the typical gladiator’s beverage was rich in calcium from plant ashes, crucial for bone health and recovery from physical exertion. Pliny the Elder, a Roman author, also reported that gladiators consumed a tonic of ashes after combat, highlighting the importance of this beverage in their regimen.

There is evidence, however, that gladiators did consume alcohol, possibly as part of their meals. However, its consumption was likely in small quantities or central to their diet. The emphasis for gladiators was on maintaining optimal physical condition, which would have been prioritised overindulgence in alcohol.


The Romans’ relationship with alcohol was diverse yet distinct. While they did drink beer, it was less celebrated than wine, the cornerstone of their beverage culture. Wine, often diluted and flavoured, was a symbol of civilisation across all social classes. Contrarily, gladiators, known for their rigorous lifestyles, primarily consumed a functional ash-based drink, suggesting a minimal role for alcohol in their diet. This exploration into Roman drinking habits reveals a society with rich and varied tastes, where the choice of beverage reflected social norms, health considerations, and cultural preferences.

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