What is Bock Beer?

What is Bock Beer? Your Complete Guide to This Delicious Brew

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Besides sounding like a character from Pokemon, what is a Bock Beer? Today, we are packing our bags and heading to the glorious beer-brewing country of Germany to study the “goat” beer. Not the “Greatest Of All Time”; literally the goat beer. We may even say hello to a few monks who love a snifter of Doppelbock. Let’s explore the characteristics of Bock Beer, its origins, and its brewing process, and I’ll even throw in a few to try as homework! 

What is Bock Beer?

So what is a Bock Beer? Bock beer is a type of strong lager originating from Germany. It is mainly known for its rich malt character and relatively higher alcohol content than lighter lagers. The name “bock” is believed to derive from the German town of Einbeck, where the style was first brewed in the Middle Ages and later adapted in Bavaria, where it was pronounced “bock.”

Characteristics of Bock Beer

Appearance: Bock beers typically have a deep amber to brown colour, boasting clarity and a robust, creamy head.

What is a bock beer?
The Majesty of a Bock Beer

Flavour and Smell: The dominant flavour in bock beer is a sweet, rich maltiness, often with hints of toasted bread, caramel, and light nutty tones. The hop presence is generally subdued, with the aroma focusing on malt rather than hops.

Alcohol Content: Bocks are stronger than your average lager, usually ranging from 6% to 7.5% alcohol by volume (ABV).

Varieties: There are several types of bock beer, including:

  • Traditional Bock: A stronger, maltier lager with a moderate alcohol content.
  • Maibock or Helles Bock: A paler, more hop-centric version traditionally brewed for consumption in spring.
  • Doppelbock: A very strong and malty lager, originally brewed by monks to serve as “liquid bread” during fasting periods.
  • Eisbock: An even stronger version made by partially freezing the beer and removing the ice, which concentrates the flavour and alcohol.

Mouthfeel: Bock beers tend to have a smooth, creamy texture with a medium to full body.

Bock beers are typically enjoyed in cooler weather due to their warming qualities and substantial body, making them excellent for sipping and savouring. 

Historical Roots of Bock Beer

This is one of my favourite parts of researching beers; their history. Bock Beer does not disappoint. 

Bock beer has a rich history that dates back to the medieval period in Germany. Its origins are intertwined with the brewing traditions of the Hanseatic League city of Einbeck.

Origins in Einbeck

In the 14th century, Einbeck was renowned for its brewing techniques and the quality of its beers. The brewers of Einbeck developed a strong, dark beer that could endure the rigours of transportation better than lighter beers. This beer became highly sought after, particularly for its ability to be stored for long periods — a crucial feature in an era without modern refrigeration technologies.

Adoption in Bavaria

The style was later adopted by Bavarian brewers in the 17th century. Due to the Bavarian accent, the pronunciation of “Einbeck” beer gradually morphed into “ein Bock” beer, with “Bock” also meaning “billy goat” in German, which explains the frequent use of goat imagery on bock beer labels today.

What is bock beer? Bock beer goat imagery
Bock Beer’s Goat Imagery

Munich and the Spread

By the late 18th century, bock beer had become a staple in the Bavarian region, especially in Munich. It was traditionally brewed in the colder months, adhering to the Reinheitsgebot — the German Beer Purity Law of 1516, which stipulated that beer could only be made from water, barley, and hops (yeast was added to the list later after its discovery).

Religious Significance

An interesting twist in the story of Bock Beer is its connection to the Christian Lenten season. Doppelbock, a stronger variant of traditional bock, was originally brewed by monks to serve as a source of nutrition during fasting periods. The beer was known as “liquid bread” because of its hearty and sustaining qualities, helping the monks to endure the fast.

Expansion and Evolution

Over the centuries, the popularity of bock beer spread beyond Germany, adapting into various sub-styles like Maibock, a lighter, hoppier bock traditionally brewed for consumption in spring, and Eisbock, a much stronger beer made by partially freezing the beer and removing the ice to concentrate the flavour and alcohol.

Today, bock beer is celebrated both in Germany and around the world.

Brewing Bock Beer: A Look at the Process

The process of brewing bock beer is intricate, emphasising the creation of a strong and richly malted lager. Let’s take a look at the brewing process.

How To Brew Dunkles Bock

Malt Selection and Preparation

Malts: Bock beers primarily use Munich and Vienna malts, which give the beer its characteristic deep malt flavours and rich colours. These malts contribute caramel, toffee, and bread-like qualities.

Milling: The selected grains are milled to break them down slightly, which helps extract sugars during mashing.


The milled grains are mixed with hot water in a mash tun. The temperature is carefully controlled to activate enzymes in the malt that convert starches into fermentable sugars, a process known as saccharification.

The mash typically undergoes a series of temperature steps (a step mash), each facilitating different enzyme activities for a thorough breakdown of the grains.


After mashing, the mixture, now called mash, is transferred to a lauter tun, where the liquid part (wort) is separated from the solid grain residues.

The grains are rinsed (sparged) with hot water to extract as much sugar as possible.


The wort is boiled, and hops are added at various stages. The hop addition is generally modest for bock beer, as the focus is on the malt flavour rather than the hop bitterness.

The boiling process sterilises the wort and helps to concentrate it through evaporation, enhancing the flavour and adjusting the sugar concentration.

Cooling and Fermentation

After boiling, the wort is rapidly cooled to a temperature suitable for fermentation.

Yeast is added once the wort is cooled. A lager yeast strain is used for bock beer. This yeast works best at lower temperatures (around 7-13°C) and ferments more slowly than ale yeasts.

The beer undergoes primary fermentation, which can take several weeks. The cool fermentation temperatures help to produce a cleaner, crisper beer with fewer fruity esters.


After primary fermentation, bock beer is lagered (stored) at near-freezing temperatures for several months. This prolonged storage helps to mature the beer, making it smoother and more rounded.

During this phase, any remaining unwanted flavours or byproducts from fermentation are removed, improving the beer’s clarity.

Filtering and Packaging

Once lagering is complete, the beer is often filtered to remove any residual yeast or particulates, ensuring clarity and stability in the final product.

The beer is then carbonated and packaged into kegs, bottles, or cans for distribution.

Differences Between Bock Beer, Other Lagers and Ales

Bock beer differs from other lagers and ales in several key aspects, including its ingredients, brewing process, and flavour profile. Luckily for you, I will compare these beverages based on these key aspects. 

A wide range of different Bock Beers
Look at all those Bock Beers!

Ingredients and Malt Character

Bock Beer: Bock is heavily malt-focused, utilising rich malts like Munich or Vienna, which impart deep, toasty, and caramel flavours. The malt profile is the central characteristic of bock beer.

Other Lagers: While other lagers may use similar malts, they often aim for a lighter, crisper malt character. They may incorporate a larger proportion of lighter malts or adjuncts like corn and rice to lighten the flavour.

Ales: Ales can vary significantly in malt use but are generally more experimental with malts and often feature prominent hop profiles or fruity esters from ale yeast strains.

Fermentation Process

Bock Beer: Brewed using lager yeast, bock beers ferment at colder temperatures (7-13°C) and are lagered (stored cold) for several months to develop smoothness and clarity. The fermentation is slower and longer.

Other Lagers: Other lagers also use lager yeast and cold fermentations, but the lagering period might be shorter, depending on the style, leading to a lighter body and flavour.

Ales: Ales use ale yeast, which ferments at warmer temperatures (15-24°C) and much more quickly. This often results in a broader range of flavours, including more pronounced fruit-like esters and sometimes spicier notes.

Alcohol Content

Bock Beer: Generally has a higher alcohol content, typically between 6% and 7.5% ABV, which is on the higher end for traditional lagers.

Other Lagers: Typically range from 4% to 5% ABV, with some lighter versions even lower, making them more sessionable than bock beers.

Ales: Alcohol content in ales can vary widely, from light session ales under 4% ABV to strong ales going well over 10% ABV.

Flavour Profile and Balance

Bock Beer: Characterised by a strong malt backbone with caramel, nuts, and bread flavours. Hop bitterness is generally low, and hop flavours are subdued, serving primarily to balance the malt sweetness.

Other Lagers: They can be more balanced or even hop-forward (like Pilsners), with a crisper and cleaner malt profile.

Ales: Often exhibit a wide range of flavours from both hops and yeast. Ales can be very hoppy (like IPAs), very malty (like Scotch ales), or have significant yeast character (like Belgian ales).

Body and Mouthfeel

Bock Beer: Tends to have a medium to full body with a smooth and somewhat creamy mouthfeel.

Other Lagers: Generally have a lighter body and a crisper finish, although this can vary with the specific style.

Ales: The body and mouthfeel of ales can range dramatically depending on the style, from light and effervescent to thick and chewy.

Overall, bock beers are distinguished by their strong malt focus, higher alcohol content, and extensive lagering process, which contribute to their distinctive smoothness and depth of flavour. This sets them apart from other lagers and the broader category of ales.

Popular Bock Beers to Try!

Enough of me yapping; here is a list of the best bock beers to try! 

  1. Shiner Bock 4.4% (Spoetzl Brewery): This dark lager is slightly sweet, with notes of roasted nuts and caramel. Lightly hopped, it goes down smooth.
  2. Chocolate Bock 5.8% (Samuel Adams): This dark beer has a rich, malty flavour with a hint of sweetness from adding chocolate. Chocolate Bock is aged slowly on a bed of rare dark cocoa nibs.
  3. Cherry Chocolate Bock 5.8% (Samuel Adams): Just like Tay Zonday, Samuel Adams released a cherry chocolate sequel for a sweet, slightly tart note. 
  4. Bock Beer 5.4% (Yuengling Brewery): This German-style beer is rich and flavourful, with a malt-forward taste crafted using unique speciality malts and balanced with Noble European hops.
  5. Uff-Da 6.7% (New Glarus Brewing Co.): This bock naturally boasts a mahogany hue. It is complex and smooth with deep chocolate and coffee undertones, complementing the rich bouquet.
  6. St. Nikolaus Bock 6.5% (Penn Brewery): A dark ruby lager with a rich, malty flavour and chocolate and roasted malt notes.

Let us know if you have tried any of these and whether any others need to be added to this list! 


Bock beer is a strong German lager known for its rich maltiness and higher alcohol content, typically between 6% and 7.5% ABV. Originating in the medieval town of Einbeck, it was later adopted and adapted in Bavaria. Characterised by a deep amber to brown colour, bock beers have a sweet, toasty malt flavour, caramel and nutty undertones, and a creamy, medium to full body. 

Types include traditional Bock, Maibock, Doppelbock, and Eisbock. Brewed using lager yeast, bock beer undergoes a lengthy fermentation and lagering process, resulting in a smooth and robust drink, especially popular in colder months. Let us know what your favourite is! 


Is Bock Beer Like stout?

Bock beer and stout are quite different. Bock is a strong German lager with a malty taste and higher alcohol content, usually amber to brown in colour. Stout is a dark ale known for its roasty flavour and often coffee or chocolate notes.

Is Bock Beer from the Bottom of the Barrel?

No, bock beer is not from the bottom of the barrel. It’s a traditional German lager brewed with a specific process involving rich malts and longer lagering for smoothness, not derived from leftover ingredients.

What Food Goes With Bock Beer? 

Bock beer pairs well with rich, hearty foods like roasted meats, smoked sausages, grilled dishes, and sharp cheeses. Its malt sweetness also complements spicy foods and decadent desserts like chocolate cake.

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